THE CONCAVE EARTH HYPOTHESIS
This hypothesis was first conceptualised in the Cellular Cosmogony of Cyrus R Teed, founder of the KoreshanReligion/Society established in 1886. He stated that the Earth is concave (curving upward), thus we are on the inside of a hollow Sphere. All of the stars and planets are illusions due to refraction of curving light in the atmosphere, of which itself is illusory in the general appearance of its shape. Only one half of the sun radiates light, it rotates on an axis at the centre of the hollow cell, and we only ever see a focalised projection of it through multiple layers of the atmosphere.
Accordingly this cosmology was revealed to Teed during a visionary experience in which a female angel showed him the "true" nature of the cosmos, where the heavens revolve inside the hollow cell of the earth.
Astrology of the Cellular Cosmogony
1.1 Inversion Geometry:
In 1981 Mostafa Abdelkader an Egyptianmathematician from Alexandria, revived and expanded upon Karl E Neupert's Geocosmos version of Cyrus' Ideas, from the year 1900. Unlike Cyrus' model which considers the heavenly bodies entirely as optical illusions, Neupert's model inverts the entire known cosmos into the concave model, stating that space shrinks / implodes via non-euclidean geometry, so as to fit an entire Copernican cosmos (C) into the comparatively finite boundary-envelope of the Geocosmos' (G) concave surface. In his paper that he submitted to the Australian science journal;Speculations in Science and Technology, in 1981 (which then gave a serious peer review of his full hypothesis in its 6th volume edition published in 1983), Abdelkader says:
“The enormous galaxies and other remote objects are mapped inside as microscopic objects, and our moon as by far the largest of the celestial objects, all of which revolve daily around the earth's axis. Straight rays of light are mapped as arcs of circles, so that all celestial phenomena appear to inside observers in G just as they do to outside observers in C. We next consider the hypothesis that, conversely, our actual universe is this finite G."(This idea entails the inversion of all known geo/astro physics.)
The main addition to Neupert's concept which Abdelkader addressed, is that light is eventually pulled toward the centre of the cosmos which shrinks inward. The arcs of light which travel toward the surface of the earth are absorbed, and those that are not continue travelling toward the centre of the cosmos as well as around it to the opposite side of the heavens than the sun. However they never illuminate the other side of the earth or its night sky because the wavelengths of light flow in accordance with the volume of space beyond the earth's surface, and are also subject to the black-hole like inertia of the cosmoses infinitesimal centre. Thus as they converge toward the opposite position of the heavens to where the sun is, they are simultaneously pulled in toward the centre.
Therefore the light which circles round to the opposite side of the heavens, never meets the sight of those who have the centre of the cosmos between them and the sun. Therefore an observer on the surface will experience night without a luminous sky, even though rays of light are actually traversing the space they look out into, this being because the rays are only in space and thus are never received directly into the eye.
(for those FES forum explorers who are limited in English terminology, “Geology” is the study of the shape of the Earth, its properties and in some sense its relation to the rest of the cosmos. Hence the name Geocosmos as in this model the Earth is the boundary of the cosmos)
Abdelkader's Concave Earth
Abdelkader devised an equation that suggests the phenomena belonging to the perception of the sky-dome and horizon line, are subject to optical illusion, supporting his statement that Light bends in wide arcs through space, rather than travelling in straight paths. As such when we believe we are looking at a luminous astrological object perpendicular to our line of sight, what we are seeing actually lies on the other end of a bent ray of light. Thus ones line of sight is really pointing at nothing, and their eyes are receiving an image of something that is at a position in the sky elsewhere to the direction they are truly looking.
This arcing nature of light therefore would attribute illusion to the perception of phenomena in the sky and space. However it is not just the light alone that produces this illusion, but also the magnetic field of the earth and gravity which causes the light to behave extraordinarily.
Double refraction and re-focalisiation of light was the explanation Teed offered for the sky-dome Illusion. Teed's model however theorised a stationary sun with which he attributed the bizare notion that it were really a focalsied point of light emanating from a rotating luminous double helix at the centre of the cosmos. Abdelkader's model on the other hand requires more elaboration as it entertains an orbiting sun rather than a stationary one.
1.2 The Mechanics of Gravity/Levity (Earth's EMF) & The Propogation of Light
To fully comprehend the theory of how light behaves in the Geocosmos, one must entertain the notion that the Earth's magnetic field and Gravity are really opposite polarities of the same unified force. This force compounds on itself through the envelope of the Geocosm i.e. the spherical area around the outside of the Geocosmos (within the crust.)
In other words Gravity or Centripetal force as Teed believed it to be, radiates out from the centre of the cosmos and through the earth's concave crust where it then
folds/compresses against the inside of the concave earth's outer boundary/envelope (below the crust) then, due to it being a continuously flowing force, it therefore flows back outward to the surface at double the frequency (as it has folded/compressed against itself) and becomes the Earth's Levic electromagnetic field EMF.
How this concept of Gravity/Levity is relevant to the behaviour of light in the Geocosmos is that as the light reaches its resonant threshold of the EMF it begins to compress/slow down with friction causing an inverted compression of its wavelength within ratio to the Earths EMF.
A way to help visualise this is to take the example of a blown up rubber glove and how one can push the gloves fingers into the inside of the blown up glove provided the air pressure isn't too high. However this analogy is only outlining the path of the light as in reality it is in constant flow, from both the sun, moon, planets, stars and any other astrological phenomena.
This means: that because one sees what's on the other end of the arcing rays of light, and that the path of light is also folding back on itself against the Earth's EMF, then focalising back down toward the earth before our eyes receive it, the optical information that our eyes receive of the EMF threshold/light resonance layer is therefore reversed. Similar to how the reflection of a spoon is upside down and slightly distorted depending on the angle one views it from.
This accounts for the unexplained phenomena (Dubbed the Moon Illusion) of why objects in the sky look larger on the horizon than they do directly overhead. It also explains why one instead sees the Sky-dome/horizon line as a concave dome-illusion rather than a convexly implied display of concentric atmosphere/void as one would expect it to appear.
Thus when one sees the sun cross below the horizon what it would actually be doing is moving up and around into the zone of the SP's influence where the circular paths of light progressively get pulled into the SP and hence day becomes night. Abdelkader emphatically points out that both his and Einstein's concepts of the properties of light are assumptions as no one has proven either view.
1.3 The Optical Illusion of the Earth Ball in Space:
In the October 1983 issue, Omni Magazine inquired withH.S.M. Coxter, a maths professor of the University of Toronto , as to whether or not there was any way to prove we aren't living inside a hollow earth. Coxter responded saying he couldn't think of any, and being an expert on inversion geometry went on to say:
“A rocket flight, an eclipse, a Foucault pendulum a Coriolis effect – any observation we can make on the outside of the earth has an exact duplicate version inside. There would be no way to tell which was the truth."
The article continued to relay: “Just as the geometry of space inverts, so do all the laws of physics. Toward the centre of a hollow Earth, light slows down and everything shrinks -- atoms, astronauts, spaceships, and measuring rods. Light travels in circular paths, producing some weird (but lawful) optical effects. Astronauts on the moon looked back on what they thought was a blue sphere in the distance. Actually it was the inside of the earth's shell, seen through sight lines that flared like the bell of a trumpet, producing the illusion of a sphere. The optical distortion is something like the wide angle view through a fish-eye lens”.
The German NASA astronaut & physicist - Werner Von Braun, speaks of this convex spherical illusion of our planet in the (inner) outer space of the concave Earth in one of his papers regarding optical illusions in space. He explains the process by which a “photograph of the Earth ball” ("Convex Earth") occurs, a potentially illusory perception of which our arbitrary physical senses have lead us to believe.
2.1 Phases of the Moon and Lunar/Solar Eclipses
The Following was harvested from:http://geocosmos.tripod.com/lunar_eclipse.htm
The sketch below shows a horizontal section through the geocosmos. One has to be aware, that in reality the earth envelopes a spherical space which means that any radiation goes in all directions. You can easily do that in your mind by making the drawing rotate around its vertical axis.
[This image is synonymous with the shape of a Torus Field]
The drawing shows the moon in its different phases. If the light hits the moon from the back, the side facing the earth is dark and we have a new moon. If the light hits the moon from the side we half a half moon. At a full moon it is radiated by light from all sides which then return to the celestial sphere.
The moon will reflect any light received back to the earth on certain curved paths, which have been shown earlier. This makes it possible that all the phases of the moon including the crescent can be seen.
Exactly opposite the sun is a funnel like night canal without any light, since it can not be reached by any light beams. Since all the curves of light are equally curved, the cross section of that canal is round. When the moon passes through it then we have a total lunar eclipse. If the moon only touches the canal a little, then we have a partial eclipse. The moon will then show a dark (light less) disk, which, according to the Copernican theory is interpreted as the shadow of the earth.
Usually the moon bypasses the night canal, since it does not orbit in the same plane as the sun, thus preventing a lunar eclipse and having a full moon instead. For the same reason we seldom see a solar eclipse. If the new moon would always pass in the direction of the sun, then we would have a solar eclipse any time we have a new moon. However, most the time the moon bypasses the sun so far north or south, that it does not cover the sun.
More details can be found in the book by Johannes Lang: "The Geocosmic Theory" (Not yet available in English.)