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[HAARP]


UNITED STATES PATENT

Eastlund

Patent Number: 4,686,605 Date of Patent: Aug. 11, 1987

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ALTERING A REGION IN THE EARTH'S
ATMOSPHERE, IONOSPHERE, AND/OR MAGNETOSPHERE

----------------------------------------------------------------

Inventor: Bernard J. Eastlund, Spring, Tex.

Assignee: APTI, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif.

Appl. No.: 690,333

Filed: Jan. 10, 1985

References Cited

PUBLICATIONS

Liberty Magazine, (2/35) p. 7 N. Tesla. New York Times (9/22/40)
Section 2, p. 7 W. L Laurence.

New York Times (12/8/15) p. 8 Col. 3.

Primary Examiner--Salvatore Cangialosi Attorney, Agent, or
Firm--Roderick W. MacDonald

ABSTRACT

A method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region
which normally exists above the earth's surface. The region is
excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating to thereby
increase its charged particle density. In one embodiment,
circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation is transmitted
upward in a direction substantially parallel to and along a field
line which extends through the region of plasma to be altered.
The radiation is transmitted at a frequency which excites
electron cyclotron resonance to heat and accelerate the charged
particles. This increase in energy can cause ionization of
neutral particles which are then absorbed as part of the region
thereby increasing the charged particle density of the region.

15 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ALTERING A REGION IN THE EARTH'S
ATMOSPHERE, IONOSPHERE, AND/OR MAGNETOSPHERE

DESCRIPTION

1. Technical Field

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for altering at
least one selected region normally existing above the earth's
surface and more particularly relates to a method and apparatus
for altering said at least one region by initially transmitting
electromagnetic radiation from the earth's surface essentially
parallel to and along naturally-occurring, divergent magnetic
field lines which extend from the earth's surface through the
region or regions to be altered.

2. Background Art

In the late 1950's, it was discovered that naturally-occuring
belts exist at high altitudes above the earth's surface, and it
is now established that these belts result from charged electrons
and ions becoming trapped along the magnetic lines of force
(field lines) of the earth's essentially dipole magnetic field.
The trapped electrons and ions are confined along the field lines
between two magnetic mirrors which exist at spaced apart points
along those field lines. The trapped electrons and ions move in
helical paths around their particular field lines and "bounce"
back and forth between the magnetic mirrors. These trapped
electrons and ions can oscillate along the field lines for long
periods of time.

In the past several years substantial effort has been made to
understand and explain the phenomena involved in belts of trapped
electrons and ions, and to explore possible ways to control and
use these phenomena for beneficial purposes. For example, in the
late 1950's and early 1960's both the United States and U.S.S.R.
detonated a series of nuclear devices of various yields to
generate large numbers of charged particles at various altitudes,
e.g., 200 kilometers (km) or greater. This was done in order to
establish and study artificial belts of trapped electrons and
ions. These experiments established that at least some of the
extraneous electrons and ions from the detonated devices did
become trapped along field lines in the earth's magnetosphere to
form artificial belts which were stable for prolonged periods of
time. For a discussion of these experiments see "The Radiation
Belt and Magnetosphere", W. N. Hess, Blaisdell Publishing Co.,
1968, pps. 155 et sec.

Other proposals which have been advanced for altering existing
belts of trapped electrons and ions and/or establishing similar
artificial belts include injecting charged particles from a
satellite carrying a payload of radioactive beta-decay material
or alpha emitters; and injecting charged particles from a
satellite-borne electron accelerator. Still another approach is
described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,042,196 wherein a low energy ionized
gas, e.g., hydrogen, is released from a synchronous orbiting
satellite near the apex of a radiation belt which is
naturally-occurring in the earth's magnetosphere to produce a
substantial increase in energetic particle precipitation and,
under certain conditions, produce a limit in the number of
particles that can be stably trapped. This precipitation effect
arises from an enhancement of the whistler-mode and ion-cyclotron
mode interactions that result from the ionized gas or "cold
plasma" injection.

It has also been proposed to release large clouds of barium in
the magnetosphere so that photoionization will increase the cold
plasma density, thereby producing electron precipitation through
enhanced whistler-mode interaction.

However, in all of the above-mentioned approaches, the mechanisms
involved in triggering the change in the trapped particle
phenomena must be actually positioned within the affected zone,
e.g., the magnetosphere, before they can be actuated to effect
the desired change.

The earth's ionosphere is not considered to be a "trapped" belt
since there are few trapped particles therein. The term "trapped"
herein refers to situations where the force of gravity on the
trapped particles is balanced by magnetic forces rather than
hydrostatic or collisional forces. The charged electrons and ions
in the ionosphere also follow helical paths around magnetic field
lines within the ionosphere but are not trapped between mirrors,
as in the case of the trapped belts in the magnetosphere. since
the gravitational force on the particles is balanced by
collisional or hydrostatic forces.

In recent years, a number of experiments have actually been
carried out to modify the ionosphere in some controlled manner to
investigate the possibility of a beneficial result. For detailed
discussions of these operations see the following papers: (1)
Ionospheric Modification Theory; G. Meltz and F. W. Perkins: (2)
The Platteville High Power facility; Carrol et al.; (3) Arecibo
Heating Experiments; W. E. Gordon and H. C. Carlson, Jr.; and (4)
Ionospheric Heating by Powerful Radio Waves; Meltz et al., all
published in Radio Science, Vol. 9, No. 11, November, 1974, at
pages 885-888; 889-894; 1041-1047; and 1049-1063, respectively,
all of which are incorporated herein by reference. In such
experiments, certain regions of the ionosphere are heated to
change the electron density and temperature within these regions.
This is accomplished by transmitting from earth-based antennae
high frequency electromagnetic radiation at a substantial angle
to, not parallel to, the ionosphere's magnetic field to heat the
ionospheric particles primarily by ohmic heating. The electron
temperature of the ionosphere has been raised by hundreds of
degrees in these experiments, and electrons with several electron
volts of energy have been produced in numbers sufficient to
enhance airglow. Electron concentrations have been reduced by a
few percent, due to expansion of the plasma as a result of
increased temperature.

In the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT), a controlled fusion device at the
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, all heating is provided by
microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance interaction. A
ring of hot electrons is formed at the earth's surface in the
magnetic mirror by a combination of electron cyclotron resonance
and stochastic heating. In the EBT, the ring electrons are
produced with an average "temperature", of 250 kilo electron
volts or kev (2.5 X 10^9K) and a plasma beta between 0.1 and 0.4;
see, "A Theoretical Study of Electron Cyclotron Absorption in
Elmo Bumpy Torus", Batchelor and Goldfinger, Nuclear Fusion, Vol.
20, No. 4 (1980) pps. 403-418.

Electron cyclotron resonance heating has been used in experiments
on the earth's surface to produce and accelerate plasmas in a
diverging magnetic field. Kosmahl et al. showed that power was
transferred from the electromagnetic waves and that a fully
ionized plasma was accelerated with a divergence angle of roughly
13 degrees. Optimum neutral gas density was 1.7 X 10^14 per cubic
centimeter; see, "Plasma Acceleration with Microwaves Near
Cyclotron Resonance", Kosmahl et al., Journal of Applied Physics,
Vol. 38, No. 12, Nov., 1967, pps. 4576-4582.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for
altering at least one selected region which normally exists above
the earth's surface. The region is excited by electron cyclotron
resonance heating of electrons which are already present and/or
artificially created in the region to thereby increase the
charged particle energy and ultimately the density of the region.

In one embodiment this is done by transmitting circularly
polarized electromagnetic radiation from the earth's surface at
or near the location where a naturally-occurring dipole magnetic
field (force) line intersects the earth's surface. Right hand
circular polarization is used in the northern hemisphere and left
hand circular polarization is used in the southern hemisphere.
The radiation is deliberately transmitted at the outset in a
direction substantially parallel to and along a field line which
extends upwardly through the region to be altered. The radiation
is transmitted at a frequency which is based on the gyro
frequency of the charged particles and which, when applied to the
at least one region, excites electron cyclotron resonance within
the region or regions to heat and accelerate the charged
particles in their respective helical paths around and along the
field line. Sufficient energy is employed to cause ionization of
neutral particles (molecules of oxygen, nitrogen and the like,
particulates, etc.) which then become a part of the region
thereby increasing the charged particle density of the region.
This effect can further be enhanced by providing artificial
particles, e.g., electrons, ions, etc., directly into the region
to be affected from a rocket, satellite, or the like to
supplement the particles in the naturally-occurring plasma. These
artificial particles are also ionized by the transmitted
electromagnetic radiation thereby increasing charged particle
density of the resulting plasma in the region.

In another embodiment of the invention, electron cyclotron
resonance heating is carried out in the selected region or
regions at sufficient power levels to allow a plasma present in
the region to generate a mirror force which forces the charged
electrons of the altered plasma upward along the force line to an
altitude which is higher than the original altitude. In this case
the relevant mirror points are at the base of the altered region
or regions. The charged electrons drag ions with them as well as
other particles that may be present. Sufficient power, e.g.,
10^15 joules, can be applied so that the altered plasma can be
trapped on the field line between mirror points and will
oscillate in space for prolonged periods of time. By this
embodiment, a plume of altered plasma can be established at
selected locations for communication modification or other
purposes.

In another embodiment, this invention is used to alter at least
one selected region of plasma in the ionosphere to establish a
defined layer of plasma having an increased charged particle
density. Once this layer is established, and while maintaining
the transmission of the main beam of circularly polarized
electromagnetic radiation, the main beam is modulated and/or at
least one second different, modulated electromagnetic radiation
beam is transmitted from at least one separate source at a
different frequency which will be absorbed in the plasma layer.
The amplitude of the frequency of the main beam and/or the second
beam or beams is modulated in resonance with at least one known
oscillation mode in the selected region or regions to excite the
known oscillation mode to propagate a known frequency wave or
waves throughout the ionosphere.

BEST MODES FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

The earth's magnetic field is somewhat analogous to a dipole bar
magnet. As such, the earth's magnetic field contains numerous
divergent field or force lines, each line intersecting the
earth's surface at points on opposite sides of the Equator. The
field lines which intersect the earth's surface near the poles
have apexes which lie at the furthest points in the earth's
magnetosphere while those closest to the Equator have apexes
which reach only the lower portion of the magnetosphere.

At various altitudes above the earth's surface, e.g., in both the
ionosphere and the magnetosphere, plasma is naturally present
along these field lines. This plasma consists of equal numbers of
positively and negatively charged particles (i.e., electrons and
ions) which are guided by the field line. It is well established
that a charged particle in a magnetic field gyrates about field
lines, the center of gyration at any instance being called the
"guiding center" of the particle. As the gyrating particle moves
along a field line in a uniform field, it will follow a helical
path about its guiding center, hence linear motion, and will
remain on the field line. Electrons and ions both follow helical
paths around a field line but rotate in opposite directions. The
frequencies at which the electrons and ions rotate about the
field line are called gyro magnetic frequencies or cyclotron
frequencies because they are identical with the expression for
the angular frequencies of gyration of particles in a cyclotron.
The cyclotron frequency of ions in a given magnetic field is less
than that of electrons, in inverse proportion to their masses.

If the particles which form the plasma along the earth's field
lines continued to move with a constant pitch angle, often
designated "alpha", they would soon impact on the earth's
surface. Pitch angle alpha is defined as the angle between the
direction of the earth's magnetic field and the velocity (V) of
the particle. However, in converging force fields, the pitch
angle does change in such a way as to allow the particle to turn
around and avoid impact. Consider a particle moving along a field
line down toward the earth. It moves into a region of increasing
magnetic field strength and therefore sine alpha increases. But
sine alpha can only increase to 1.0, at which point the particle
turns around and starts moving up along the field line, and alpha
decreases. The point at which the particle turns around is called
the mirror point, and there alpha equals ninety degrees. This
process is repeated at the other end of the field line where the
same magnetic field strength value B, namely Bm, exists. The
particle again turns around and this is called the "conjugate
point" of the original mirror point. The particle is therefore
trapped and bounces between the two magnetic mirrors. The
particle can continue oscillating in space in this manner for
long periods of time. The actual place where a particle will
mirror can be calculated from the following:

sin^2 alpha0=B0/Bm

wherein:

alpha0=equatorial pitch angle of particle

B0=equatorial field strength on a particular field line

Bm=field strength at the mirror point

Recent discoveries have established that there are substantial
regions of naturally trapped particles in space which are
commonly called "trapped radiation belts". These belts occur at
altitudes greater than about 500 km and accordingly lie in the
magnetosphere and mostly above the ionosphere.

The ionosphere, while it may overlap some of the trapped-particle
belts, is a region in which hydrostatic forces govern its
particle distribution in the gravitational field. Particle motion
within the ionosphere is governed by both hydrodynamic and
electrodynamic forces. While there are few trapped particles in
the ionosphere, nevertheless, plasma is present along field lines
in the ionosphere. The charged particles which form this plasma
move between collisions with other particles along similar
helical paths around the field lines and although a particular
particle may diffuse downward into the earth's lower atmosphere
or lose energy and diverge from its original field line due to
collisions with other particles, these charged particles are
normally replaced by other available charged particles or by
particles that are ionized by collision with said particle. The
electron density (Ne) of the plasma will vary with the actual
conditions and locations involved. Also, neutral particles, ions,
and electrons are present in proximity to the field lines.

The production of enhanced ionization will also alter the
distribution Or atomic and molecular constituents of the
atmosphere, most notably through increased atomic nitrogen
concentration. The upper atmosphere is normally rich in atomic
oxygen (the dominant atmospheric constituent above 200 km
altitude), but atomic nitrogen is normally relatively rare. This
can be expected to manifest itself in increased airglow, among
other effects.

As known in plasma physics, the characteristics of a plasma can
be altered by adding energy to the charged particles or by
ionizing or exciting additional particles to increase the density
of the plasma. One way to do this is by heating the plasma which
can be accomplished in different ways, e.g., ohmic, magnetic
compression, shock waves, magnetic pumping, electron cyclotron
resonance, and the like.

[...]

Referring now to the drawings, the present invention provides a
method and apparatus for altering at least one region of plasma
which lies along a field line, particularly when it passes
through the ionosphere and/or magnetosphere. FIG. 1 is a
simplified illustration of the earth 10 and one of its dipole
magnetic force or field lines 11. As will be understood, line 11
may be any one of the numerous naturally existing field lines and
the actual geographical locations 13 and 14 of line 11 will be
chosen based on a particular operation to be carried out. The
actual locations at which field lines intersect the earth's
surface is documented and is readily ascertainable by those
skilled in the art.

Line 11 passes through region R which lies at an altitude above
the earth's surface. A wide range of altitudes are useful given
the power that can be employed by the practice of this invention.
The electron cyclotron resonance heating effect can be made to
act on electrons anywhere above the surface of the earth. These
electrons may be already present in the atmosphere, ionosphere,
and/or magnetosphere of the earth, or can be artificially
generated by a variety of means such as x-ray beams, charged
particle beams, lasers, the plasma sheath surrounding an object
such as a missile or meteor, and the like. Further, artificial
particles, e.g., electrons, ions, etc., can be injected directly
into region R from an earth-launched rocket or orbiting satellite
carrying, for example, a payload of radioactive beta-decay
material; alpha emitters; an electron accelerator; and/or ionized
gases such as hydrogen; see U.S. Pat. No. 4,042,196. The altitude
can be greater than about 50 km if desired, e.g., can be from
about 50 km to about 800 km, and, accordingly may lie in either
the ionosphere or the magnetosphere or both. As explained above,
plasma will be present along line 11 within region R and is
represented by the helical line 12. Plasma 12 is comprised of
charged particles (i.e., electrons and ions) which rotate about
opposing helical paths along line 11.

Antenna 15 is positioned as close as is practical to the location
14 where line 11 intersects the earth's surface. Antenna 15 may
be of any known construction for high directionality, for
example, a phased array, beam spread angle (symbol? circle with a
line) type. See "The MST Radar at Poker Flat, Alaska", Radio
Science, Vol. 15, No. 2, Mar.-Apr. 1980, pps. 213-223, which is
incorporated herein by reference. Antenna 15 is coupled to
transmitter 16 which generates a beam of high frequency
electromagnetic radiation at a wide range of discrete
frequencies, e.g., from about 20 to about 1800 kilohertz (kHz).

Transmitter 16 is powered by power generator means 17 which is
preferably comprised of one or more large, commercial electrical
generators. Some embodiments of the present invention require
large amounts of power, e.g., up to 10^9 to 10^11 watts, in
continuous wave or pulsed power. Generation of the needed power
is within the state of the art. Although the electrical
generators necessary for the practice of the invention can be
powered in any known manner, for example, by nuclear reactors,
hydroelectric facilities, hydrocarbon fuels, and the like, this
invention, because of its very large power requirement in certain
applications, is particularly adapted for use with certain types
of fuel sources which naturally occur at strategic geographical
locations around the earth. For example, large reserves of
hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) exist in Alaska and Canada. In
northern Alaska, particularly the North Slope region, large
reserves are currently readily available. Alaska and northern
Canada also are ideally located geographically as to magnetic
latitudes. Alaska provides easy access to magnetic field lines
that are especially suited to the practice of this invention,
since many field lines which extend to desirable altitudes for
this invention intersect the earth in Alaska. Thus, in Alaska,
there is a unique combination of large, accessible fuel sources
at desirable field line intersections. Further, a particularly
desirable fuel source for the generation of very large amounts of
electricity is present in Alaska in abundance, this source being
natural gas. The presence of very large amounts of clean-burning
natural gas in Alaskan latitudes, particularly on the North
Slope, and the availability of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), gas
turbine, fuel cell, electrogasdynamic (EGD) electric generators
which operate very efficiently with natural gas provide an ideal
power source for the unprecedented power requirements of certain
of the applications of this invention. For a more detailed
discussion Or the various means for generating electricity from
hydrocarbon fuels, see "Electrical Aspects of Combustion", Lawton
and Weinberg. Clarendon Press, 1969. For example, it is possible
to generate the electricity directly at the high frequency needed
to drive the antenna system. To do this, typically the velocity
of flow of the combustion gases (v), past magnetic field
perturbation of dimension d (in the case of MHD), follow the
rule:

v=df

where f is the frequency at which electricity is generated. Thus,
if v= 1.78 x 10^6 cm/sec and d=l cm then electricity would be
generated at a frequency of 178 mHz.

[...]

FIG. 3 is an idealized representation of movement of plasma 12
upon excitation by electron cyclotron resonance within the
earth's divergent force field. Electrons (e) are accelerated to
velocities required to generate the necessary mirror force to
cause their upward movement. At the same time neutral particles
(n) which are present along line 11 in region R are ionized and
become part of plasma 12. As electrons (e) move upward along line
11, they drag ions (i) and neutrals (n) with them but at an angle
(symbol circle with line) of about 13 degrees to field line 11.
Also, any particulates that may be present in region R, will be
swept upwardly with the plasma. As the charged particles of
plasma 12 move upward, other particles such as neutrals within or
below R, move in to replace the upwardly moving particles. These
neutrals, under some conditions, can drag with them charged
particles.

For example, as a plasma moves upward, other particles at the
same altitude as the plasma move horizontally into the region to
replace the rising plasma and to form new plasma. The kinetic
energy developed by said other particles as they move
horizontally is, for example, on the same order of magnitude as
the total zonal kinetic energy of stratospheric winds known to
exist.

Referring again to FIG. 2, plasma 12 in region R is moved upward
along field line 11. The plasma 12 will then form a plume
(cross-hatched area in FIG. 2) which will be relatively stable
for prolonged periods of time. The exact period of time will vary
widely and be determined by gravitational forces and a
combination of radiative and diffusive loss terms. In the
previous detailed example, the calculations were based on forming
a plume by producing O+ energies of 2 ev/particle. About 10 ev
per particle would be required to expand plasma 12 to apex point
C (FIG. l). There at least some of the particles of plasma 12
will be trapped and will oscillate between mirror points along
field line 11. This oscillation will then allow additional
heating of the trapped plasma 12 by stochastic heating which is
associated with trapped and oscillating particles. See "A New
Mechanism for Accelerating Electrons in the Outer Ionosphere" by
R. A. Helliwell and T. F. Bell, Journal of Geophysical Research'
Vol. 65, No. 6, June, 1960. This is preferably carried out at an
altitude of at least 500 km.

The plasma of the typical example might be employed to modify or
disrupt micro-wave transmissions of satellites. If less than
total black-out of transmission is desired (e.g., scrambling by
phase shifting digital signals), the density of the plasma (Ne)
need only be at least about 10^6 per cubic centimeter for a
plasma originating at an altitude of from about 250 to about 400
km and accordingly less energy (i.e., electromagnetic radiation),
e.g., 10^8 joules need be provided. Likewise, if the density Ne
is on the order of 10^8, a properly positioned plume will provide
a reflecting surface for VHF waves and can be used to enhance,
interfere with, or otherwise modify communication transmissions.

It can be seen from the foregoing that by appropriate application
of various aspects of this invention at strategic locations and
with adequate power sources, a means and method is provided to
cause interference with or even total disruption of
communications over a very large portion of the earth. This
invention could be employed to disrupt not only land based
communications, both civilian and military, but also airborne
communications and sea communications (both surface and
subsurface). This would have significant military implications,
particularly as a barrier to or confusing factor for hostile
missiles or airplanes.

The belt or belts of enhanced ionization produced by the method
and apparatus of this invention, particularly if set up over
Northern Alaska and Canada, could be employed as an early warning
device, as well as a communications disruption medium. Further,
the simple ability to produce such a situation in a practical
time period can by itself be a deterring force to hostile action.
The ideal combination of suitable field lines intersecting the
earth's surface at the point where substantial fuel sources are
available for generation of very large quantities of
electromagnetic power, such as the North Slope of Alaska,
provides the wherewithal to accomplish the foregoing in a
practical time period, e.g., strategic requirements could
necessitate achieving the desired altered regions in time periods
of two minutes or less and this is achievable with this
invention, especially when the combination of natural gas and
magnetohydrodynamic, gas turbine, fuel cell and/or EGD electric
generators are employed at the point where the useful field lines
intersect the earth's surface.

One feature of this invention which satisfies a basic requirement
of a weapon system, i.e., continuous checking of operability, is
that small amounts of power can be generated for operability
checking purposes. Further, in the exploitation of this
invention, since the main electromagnetic beam which generates
the enhanced ionized belt of this invention can be modulated
itself and/or one or more additional electromagnetic radiation
waves can be impinged on the ionized region formed by this
invention as will be described in greater detail herein after
with respect to FIG. 4, a substantial amount of randomly
modulated signals of very large power magnitude can be generated
in a highly nonlinear mode. This can cause confusion of or
interference with or even complete disruption of guidance systems
employed by even the most sophisticated of airplanes and
missiles. The ability to employ and transmit over very wide areas
of the earth a plurality of electromagnetic waves of varying
frequencies and to change same at will in a random manner,
provides a unique ability to interfere with all modes of
communications, land, sea, and/or air, at the same time. Because
of the unique juxtaposition of usable fuel source at the point
where desirable field lines intersect the earth's surface, such
wide ranging and complete communication interference can be
achieved in a reasonably short period of time. Because of the
mirroring phenomenon discussed herein above, it can also be
prolonged for substantial time periods so that it would not be a
mere transient effect that could simply be waited out by an
opposing force. Thus, this invention provides the ability to put
unprecedented amounts of power in the earth's atmosphere at
strategic locations and to maintain the power injection level,
particularly if random pulsing is employed, in a manner far more
precise and better controlled than heretofore accomplished, by
the prior art, particularly by the detonation of nuclear
devices of various yields at various altitudes.

Where the prior art approaches yielded merely transitory effects,
the unique combination of fuel and desirable field lines at the
point where the fuel occurs allows; the establishment of,
compared to prior art approaches, precisely controlled and
long-lasting effects which cannot, practically speaking, simply
be waited out. Further, by knowing the frequencies of the various
electromagnetic beams employed in the practice of this invention,
it is possible not only to interfere with third party
communications but to take advantage of one or more such beams to
carry out a communications network even though the rest of the
world's communications are disrupted. Put another way, what is
used to disrupt another's communications can be employed by one
knowledgeable of this invention as a communications network at
the same time.

In addition, once one's own communication network is established,
the far-reaching extent of the effects of this invention could be
employed to pick up communication signals of other(s) for
intelligence purposes. Thus, it can be seen that the disrupting
effects achievable by this invention can be employed to benefit
by the party who is practicing this invention since knowledge of
the various electromagnetic waves being employed and how they
will vary in frequency and magnitude can be used to an advantage
for positive communication and eavesdropping purposes at the same
time. However, this invention is not limited to locations where
the fuel source naturally exists or where desirable field lines
naturally intersect the earth's surface. For example, fuel,
particularly hydrocarbon fuel, can be transported by pipeline and
the like to the location where the invention is to be practiced.

[...]

This invention has a phenomenal variety of possible ramifications
and potential future developments. As alluded to earlier, missile
or aircraft destruction, deflection, or confusion could result.
particularly when relativistic particles are employed. Also.
large regions of the atmosphere could be lifted to an
unexpectedly high altitude so that missiles encounter unexpected
and unplanned drag forces with resultant destruction or
deflection of same. Weather modification is possible by, for
example, altering upper atmosphere wind patterns or altering
solar absorption patterns by constructing one or more plumes of
atmospheric particles which will act as a lens or focusing
device.

Also as alluded to earlier, molecular modifications of the
atmosphere can take place so that positive environmental effects
can be achieved. Besides actually changing the molecular
composition of an atmospheric region, a particular molecule or
molecules can be chosen for increased presence. For example,
ozone, nitrogen, etc. concentrations in the atmosphere could be
artificially increased. Similarly, environmental enhancement
could be achieved by causing the breakup of various chemical
entities such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides,
and the like.

Transportation of entities can also be realized when advantage is
taken of the drag effects caused by regions of the atmosphere
moving up along diverging field lines. Small micron sized
particles can be then transported. and, under certain
circumstances and with the availability of sufficient energy,
larger particles or objects could be similarly affected.
Particles with desired characteristics such as tackiness,
reflectivity, absorptivity, etc., can be transported for specific
purposes or effects. For example, a plume of tacky particles
could be established to increase the drag on a missile or
satellite passing there through. Even plumes of plasma having
substantially less charged particle density than described above
will produce drag effects on missiles which will affect a
lightweight (dummy) missile in a manner substantially different
than a heavy (live) missile and this affect can be used to
distinguish between the two types of missiles. A moving plume
could also serve as a means for supplying a space station or for
focusing vast amount of sunlight on selected portions of the
earth.

Surveys of global scope could also be realized because the
earth's natural magnetic field could be significantly altered in
a controlled manner by plasma beta effects resulting in, for
example, improved magnetotelluric surveys. Electromagnetic pulse
defenses are also possible. The earth's magnetic field could be
decreased or disrupted at appropriate altitudes to modify or
eliminate the magnetic field in high Compton electron generation
(e.g., from high altitude nuclear bursts) regions. High
intensity, well controlled electrical fields can be provided in
selected locations for various purposes. For example, the plasma
sheath surrounding a missile or satellite could be used as a
trigger for activating such a high intensity field to destroy the
missile or satellite.

Further, irregularities can be created in the ionosphere which
will interfere with the normal operation of various types of
radar, e.g., synthetic aperture radar. The present invention can
also be used to create artificial belts of trapped particles
which in turn can be studied to determine the stability of such
parties. Still further, plumes in accordance with the present
invention can be formed to simulate and/or perform the same
functions as performed by the detonation of a "heave" type
nuclear device without actually having to detonate such a device.
Thus it can be seen that the ramifications are numerous,
far-reaching, and exceedingly varied in usefulness.

Revendications de US4686605

I cl..

1. A method for altering at least one region normally existing above the earth's surface with electromagnetic radiation using naturally-occurring and diverging magnetic field lines of the earth comprising transmitting first electromagnetic radiation at a frequency between 20 and 7200 kHz from the earth's surface, said transmitting being conducted essentially at the outset of transmission substantially parallel to and along at least one of said field lines, adjusting the frequency of said first radiation to a value which will excite electron cyclotron resonance at an initial elevation at least 50 km above the earth's surface, whereby in the region in which said electron cyclotron resonance takes place heating, further ionization, and movement of both charged and neutral particles is effected, said cyclotron resonance excitation of said region is continued until the electron concentration of said region reaches a value of at least 10@6 per cubic centimeter and has an ion energy of at least 2 ev.

2. The method of claim 1 including the step of providing artificial particles in said at least one region which are excited by said electron cyclotron resonance.

3. The method of claim 2 wherein said artificial particles are provided by injecting same into said at least one region from an orbiting satellite.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein said threshold excitation of electron cyclotron resonance is about 1 watt per cubic centimeter and is sufficient to cause movement of a plasma region along said diverging magnetic field lines to an altitude higher than the altitude at which said excitation was initiated.

5. The method of claim 4 wherein said rising plasma region pulls with it a substantial portion of neutral particles of the atmosphere which exist in or near said plasma region.

6. The method of claim 1 wherein there is provided at least one separate source of second electromagnetic radiation, said second radiation having at least one frequency different from said first radiation, impinging said at least one second radiation on said region while said region is undergoing electron cyclotron resonance excitation caused by said first radiation.

7. The method of claim 6 wherein said second radiation has a frequency which is absorbed by said region.

8. The method of claim 6 wherein said region is plasma in the ionosphere and said second radiation excites plasma waves within said ionosphere.

9. The method of claim 8 wherein said electron concentration reaches a value of at least 10@12 per cubic centimeter.

10. The method of claim 8 wherein said excitation of electron cyclotron resonance is initially carried out within the ionosphere and is continued for a time sufficient to allow said region to rise above said ionosphere.

11. The method of claim 1 wherein said excitation of electron cyclotron resonance is carried out above about 500 kilometers and for a time of from 0.1 to 1200 seconds such that multiple heating of said plasma region is achieved by means of stochastic heating in the magnetosphere.

12. The method of claim 1 wherein said first electromagnetic radiation is right hand circularly polarized in the northern hemisphere and left hand circularly polarized in the southern hemisphere.

13. The method of claim 1 wherein said electromagnetic radiation is generated at the site of a naturally-occurring hydrocarbon fuel source, said fuel source being located in at least one of northerly or southerly magnetic latitudes.

14. The method of claim 13 wherein said fuel source is natural gas and electricity for generating said electromagnetic radiation is obtained by burning said natural gas in at least one of magnetohydrodynamic, gas turbine, fuel cell, and EGD electric generators located at the site where said natural gas naturally occurs in the earth.

15. The method of claim 14 wherein said site of natural gas is within the magnetic latitudes that encompass Alaska.